- Stale Bread Act 1801
- Hyde Park Riot 1866
- The Framework Knitters Declaration 1812
- Britain After Waterloo the British Disillusion Post 1815
- Constitutional Crisis People’s Budget 1909
- The Luddites
- William Booth and the Inspiration behind the Salvation Army 1865
- Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
- Workhouse Test Act 1723
- Sir Robert Peel Prime Minister capitalised on his father’s success but what happened next?
- Corn Laws Economic History and Big Data
- Magna Carta Translation 1225
- Statute of Labourers 1351
- Vagabonds and Beggars Act 1494
- Great Reform Act 1832 and the riots that preceeded.
Great Reform act 1832 and Riots that Preceded the Law
A debatable title for this act it set out the basis of electoral reform and for the first time enshrined in law the prohibition of womens rights to vote. The title might lead us to assume this was an Act designed to lead social change but in reality in it was a minimalist approach led by Lord John Russell aiming to appease the masses. Nicknamed Finality Jack for a reason, he had intended to quell the clamour for change and render further reform unnecessary.
Fortunately the tide had already turned and the changes would ultimately come but it took nearly another century before all Men and Women would finally have the vote.
The Act was a response to the unfair electoral system and sought to resolve some of the inherent problems caused by unfair boundaries and rotten boroughs but it tacitly set back the emancipation of women, excluding them completely in law.
Riots In the Streets and Radical Direct Action Brought the Change not Reasoned Parliamentary Debate
In 1831 the Reform Act passed in the Commons but the Tory dominated House of Lords defeated it. There followed much civil unrest with serious disturbances and rioting in London, Birmingham, Derby, Nottingham, Leicester, Yeovil, Sherborne, Exeter and Bristol. The riots were the worst seen in the 19th century. They were sparked when Sir Charles Weatherall who opposed the earlier act opened the Assize Court. Public buildings and private houses were arsoned. 102 people were arrested and 12 sentenced to death.
Serious fear of Revolution and Disorder with the backdrop across the Channel of the French Revolution
The Great Reform Act of 1832 was an attempt to head-off (having witnessed the revolution in July 1830 in France) the possibility of a similar revolt in England. The King, William IV, had also lost popularity because he had opposed reform, eventually giving way to creating new Whig Peers which then led to the Lords conceding and approving the 1832 Bill.
But the rights established were still very limiting as to who could vote:
- only men who owned property worth a minimum of £10 could vote
- this excluded most of the working people
- and candidates for parliament had to be able to afford to pay for such a right
- women were excluded by the specific use of the word man as opposed to person
- these reforms did not go far enough and in itself the act inspired further future campaigning against the limited rights it granted