17th Century 1600-1699
The 17th Century 1600 - 1699. Use the timeline and maps to explore this historic period and it’s medley of science, art and politics.
Use the historic theme ‘Intellectual Enlightenment’ to find out how world perception was changed during this period.
Unlike the War of the Roses, which largely affected a minority of people in a small part of the country, the Civil War in England touched a glacial hand upon everyone. Friends, family and neighbours became estranged and no one was ever to forget the experience. The century dawns with the death of Elizabeth I after a 44 year reign and the emergence of the Stuarts led by James VI of Scotland and as James I of England.
The dichotomy of censorship and intrigue with the dawn of 'The Enlightenment'
The world was turned on it's head, censorship where there had been none, a press excited beyond description and spies in every camp.
Yet this century brings us the dawning of Enlightenment, the King James bible, great scientists coalesce and institutions formed, Newton, Hooke, Wren, Boyle talk at the newly founded Gresham College and the Royal Society.
The 17th Century is the one that delivers Shakespeare to the world and one that a London company sends ships to found a new town, Jamestown in America. Galileo exhibits the wonders of the telescope to the pontifical court. Tobacco makes it's way to England and the slave trade is booming.
Harvey discovers blood circulation whilst at the same time people are being burned and hung tried as witches based on superstitious mumbling. The weather across Europe becomes colder, Cromwell rules Britain and the people become fed up with austerity (doesn't that sound familiar), when Cromwell dies they welcome back their monarch, King Charles II.
As the century progresses the Black Death, the Plague, marches across Europe. London burns and it must all, have seem quite apocalyptic. The Dutch and the English continue their war of attrition and miles away from Europe, the British East India Company found a trading post, Calcutta.
Consider the 30 Years War and its impact on European politics.
Originally a Protestant Catholic war in the Holy Roman Empire which became a political conflict between the Franco and Haspburg Empires. This is a series of connected conflicts which is only dwarfed by the Napoleonic Wars and the World Wars in terms of number of killed.
The Peace of Westphalia ended the 30 years War. It marked the establishment of European states which ended feudalism. It's the foundation for all European law today.
Change in Britain is also profound and American Settlement proceeds in Jamestown.
The Plantation of Ulster proceeds, Cromwell leads a revolution, a King, Charles ,I loses his head and another his son Charles II returns from exile and is restored to the throne.
|1600||East India Company founded.||This company is chartered to trade with the East Indies and later India.|
|1601-1604||Shakespeare's Plays including Hamlet 12th Night Measure for Measure||Arts Theatre Authors Playwrights Writers Shakespeare Intriguing People|
|1603||Death of Queen Elizabeth I||Royalty|
|1603||King James VI of Scotland, becomes James I, King of England, Ireland and Scotland. Scotland is no longer independent.||Royalty|
|1603||Hugh Platt discovers coke, a charcoal like substance produced by heating coal||Science|
|1603||Johnson writes Sejanus||Arts Writers Authors|
|1604||King James I authorises the King James Bible.||Royalty|
Was a draft proposed document of the House of Commons Committee, which would assert parliamentary privilege above the interference of the King's Privy Council. It was drafted due to a dispute with the King James I but when he backed down and became more conciliatory, it was not presented to him. It perhaps tells a little of the parliamentary zeal that is building but its importance has sometimes been exaggerated by historians. It is an early example of parliament exerting its will and preparing to take-on and assert itself over its monarch.
James I Monarchy
House of Commons
|1604-1608||Shakespeare writes Othello King Lear Macbeth Anthony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus||Arts Theatre Authors Playwrights Writers Shakespeare Intriguing People Published Works|
|1605||The Gunpowder Plot. A plot to blow up Parliament is devised by extremist Catholics but it is thwarted and the plotters hanged.||A plot to blow up Parliament is devised by extremist Catholics but it is thwarted and the plotters hanged.|
|1605||Bacon writes Advancement of Learning, arguing against magic and encouraging the development of scientific methods||Writers Philosophers Enlightenment Published Works Science|
|1606||Virginia Company granted Royal Charter||Organisation Companies Empire|
|1606-1669||Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn born Painter, greatest Dutch master||Art Artists Painters Baroque|
|1607||The Jamestown Colony is founded.||A London company has sent three ships and a small group of settlers to Virginia. After many trials a colony is settled and named after King James I|
|1608-1613||Shakespeare's last plays Tempest Winter's Tale Henry VIII||Arts Theatre Authors Playwrights Writers Shakespeare Intriguing People|
|1609||Henry Hudson, employed by the Dutch East India Company, anchors off Manhattan Island and trades with local Indians. So will begin the Hudson Bay Company.||Business|
|1609||Johann Kepler discovered that planets moved in elliptical orbits||Science|
|1611||Authorised Version of the Bible||Church and Religion Published Works|
|1612-1613||New English and Old English Clash results in Anti-Catholic Legislation |
The Catholics lost their parliamentary majority.
|Church and Religion
Church of Ireland
Church of England
Government Politics Parliament
|1613||Webster The White Devil||Published Works Writers Authors|
|1613||Globe Theatre Burned||Theatres London Shakespeare|
|1615||William Baffin penetrates to within 800 miles of the North Pole, the closest anyone will get until the 19th century.||Exploration Science|
|1616||Ben Johnson Works||Writers Authors Playrights Published Works Arts Literature|
|1616||Pochahontas arrives in London||Exploration Americas USA London|
|1616||William Harvey lectures about the circulation of the blood to the Royal College of Physicians||Medicine|
|1617||Isaac Oliver Painter died . He was a painter and son of a Huguenot Goldsmith. A pupil of Hilliard his style was different employed darkshadows||British Artists Painters Minaturists Elizabeth I|
|1618||Sir Walter Ralegh executed||Intriguing People Explorers Monarchy|
|1618||Thirty Years War Begins||Battles Wars and Campaigns Conflicts|
|1619||Nicholas Hilliard was England's principal portrait painter during the reign of Elizabeth I. He was son of Goldsmith and trained as a Jeweller. He had a large family and specialised in Miniatures to keep them all. He also painted life size portraits of Elizabeth I some survive.||British Artists Painters Minaturists Elizabeth I|
|1619||First slaves||20 Africans arrive in Jamestown Virginia aboard a Dutch ship and are sold as indentured servants, the forerunners of slaves.|
|1620||Cornelius Drebbel builds a navigable submarine. It cruised 15m below the surface of the River Thames in London||Science|
|1620||Pilgrim Fathers||The Pilgrim Fathers arrive at Cape Cod MA.|
|1621||John Donne Metaphysical Poet appointed Dean of St Pauls London||London Arts Poets Authors Writers Intriguing People|
|1623||First Folio of Shakespeare's published works. You can directly access Bodleian First Folio Digital projectOxford University's Bodleian First Folio digitising project here||Literature Publishing Authors Writers Playrights Shakespeare|
|1625||Death of James I, accession of Charles I||Monarchy Government and Politics|
|1626||Francis Bacon English philosopher died||Science philosophy|
|1627||Francis Bacon's book 'The new Atlantis' published postumously. In this utopian tale he predicts robots, telephones, tape recorders and the elecetric motor||Writer Science|
|1628||Charles I's chief minister, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, is assassinated||Political|
|1629||Charles I starts personal rule with Dissolution of Parliament||Monarchy Government and Politics|
|1632||Sir Christopher Wren architect is born in Wiltshire||Architecture Science Intriguing People|
|1632-1675||Jan Vermeer Painter finest Dutch genre painter not recognised in his own lifetime. Famous works Girl with a Pearl Earing, only 35 certain artworks to his name.||Art Painter Baroque|
|1633||English Massachusetts Bay colony founded America||Empire Colonies Americas USA Massachusetts|
|1633||Galileo condemned for heresy by the Church||Astronomers Enlightment|
|1633||Laud appointed Archbishop of Canterbury||Church and Religion Government and Politics Monarchy|
|1633||John Donne Metaphysical Poet writes Poems||Poet Poetry Published Works|
|1640||Sir Peter Pul Rubens Painter of the Baroque Era died||Artists Painters Intriguing People|
|1640||Long Parliament Summoned||Government and Politics law|
the first act that mandates a parliament shall be called at least of minimum of once in every 3 years.
|1641||Sir Anthony Van Dyck Artists Painter died. He was an Anwerp born infant prodigy son of family of silk merchants,||Artists Painters Baroque|
|1642||Charles I attempts to arrest the Five Members in the Commons|
The king fails and flees from London.
Government and Politics
|1642||Issac Newton is born at Woolsthorpe||Science intriguing people|
|1642||Civil War begins as Charles I raises his standard at Nottingham||Political|
|1642||Civil War Battle of Edgehill||War|
|1645||Execution of Archbishop of Canterbury Laud||Government and Politics law|
|1645||Parliamentary Army vicorious at marson Moor||Civil War Parliamenarians|
|1648||Thirty Years War ends||War|
|1648||The Rump Parliament votes to abolish the English monarchy, the Rump was formed after Pride's Fall of the Long parliament, in which all of Charles I's remaining supporters were removed from Parliament.||Royalty Political
|1649||Trial and Execution of Charles I||Monarchy Government and Politics|
|1649-1652||Cromwells campaign in Ireland and Scotland||Government Civil War Politics|
|1651||Thomas Hobbs Leviathan published||Writer Philosopher|
|1652||Sir Cristopher Wren makes observations of the planet Saturn||Science|
|1653||Cromwell becomes Lord Protector||Government and Politics Civil war|
|1657||Christopher Wren becomes Professor of Astronomy, Gresham College, London.||Science|
|1658||Richard Cromwell suceeds his father Oliver on his death||Government and Politics|
|1658||Robert Hooke invents the balance spring for watches||Science|
|1659||Richard Cromwell defeated by army leads to recall of he Rump Parliament||Government and Politics|
|1660||Restoration of Charles II||Monarchy Government and Politics|
|1660||Royal Society founded||Science|
|1660||Samuel Pepys starts his diary||Writer|
|1660||Restoration of Chales II||Monarchy Government|
|1660||Samuel Pepys begins to keep his diary||Authors writers Diarists|
|1660||Astracea Redux by John Dryden||Writers Authors Published Works Literature|
|1660||England is producing 2 million of tons of coal a year. This is 80% of the entire world output.||Business|
|1662||Robert Boyle asserts that in an ideal gas under constant temperature, volume and pressure vary inversely. This is known as Boyles Law.||Science|
|1662||Resoration of Church of england completed and final revision of the Book of Common Prayer||Church and Religion|
|1662||Royal Society receives its Royal Charter||Organisations Enlightenment|
|1664||Poems by Katherine Philips a female author: One of the first women to acquire fame as a writer in England, she addressed jer poems of love and companionship to the women in her circle the “Society of Friendship.” Detailed biography from Warwick University http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/english/currentstudents/undergraduate/modules/fulllist/second/en228/handouts/katherine_philips/||Poets Poetry Published Works Milton Authors Writers Early English Female writers|
|1665||Plague in London||Major Events London|
|1666||City of London destroyed by The Great Fire||Major Events London|
|1666||Sir Christopher Wren appointed Commissioner for Rebuilding the City of London after the great fire.||Architecture|
|1666||Robert Boyle in the Origine of formes and qualities maintains that everything is built of atoms||Science|
|1667||Annus Mirabulus by John Dryden||Poets Poetry Major Published Works Dryden|
|1667||Dutch ships attack the English fleet in the Medway||Political|
|1667||Pradise Lost John Milton Poet||Poets Poetry Major Published Works Milton Authors writers|
|1668||Newton becomes a fellow of Trinity College Cambridge||Science|
|1668||Newton invents the reflecting telescope||Science|
|1668||John Wallis suggests the Law of Conservation of Momentum||Science|
|1671||Paradise Regain'd by John Milton, full text here http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/58 quote I who e're while the happy Garden sung,|
By one mans disobedience lost, now sing
Recover'd Paradise to all mankind,
By one mans firm obedience fully tri'd
Through all temptation, and the Tempter foil'd
In all his wiles, defeated and repuls't,
And Eden rais'd in the wast Wilderness.
|Poets Poetry Published Works Milton Authors Writers|
|1672||Issac Newton elected Fellow of the Royal Society London||Science|
|1674||Sir Christopher Wren produces second plan and model for St Paul’s Cathedral unveiled as the first designs were not felt grand enough by the City of London Council.||Architecture|
|1675||A Satyre against Mankind by John Wilmot Earl of Rochester https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/mankind.html and analysis here https://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/mankind.html||Published Works Rochester|
|1675||The Country Wife by Wycherley a Restoration Comedy||Published Works Wycherley|
|1677||All for Love by John Dryden||Literature Poets Published Works Arts|
|1678||The Pilgrams Progress Part 1 by Bunyan||Published Works Literature Arts|
|1681||Lord Salisbury tried for High Treason||Government Aristocracy Civil unrest|
|1681||Principal collection of Andrew Marvell's poems, edited by his widow and 'taken from exact copies, under his own handwriting, found since his death among his other papers'.Cromwell suppressed 3 poems whose publication was thought to be not suited to the politics of the day.||Published Works Poets Metaphysical Literature|
|1681||Pennsylvania founded||Pennsylvania is established as a Quaker colony by William Penn.|
|1682||Sir Christopher Wren produces plans for the Royal Hospital, Chelsea.||Architecture|
|1682||Issac Newton observes Halley's Comet||Science|
|1684||The famous 'Coffee House' meetings take place between Halley, Hooke, and Christopher Wren concerning the question of the motion of the earth and the problem of the inverse square relation.||Science|
|1685||Charles II Died and James II accedes to the throne||Monarchy|
|1685||Duke of Monmouth's rebellion crushed at Sedgemoor||Government Civil Unrest|
|1685 - 1688||Restoration of Catholicism to England||King James II attempts to restore Catholicism to England.|
|1687||Sir Isaac Newton first published Newton states laws of motion and gravity in Principia Mathematica 1686-1687Principia Mathematica||Enlightentment Science Intellectuals Intriguing People|
|1688||Around this date Lloyds of London is founded||Business|
|1688||The Glorious Revolution. King James II is deposed and William and Mary become King and Queen of England||Politics|
|1688||John Dryden made Poet Laureate English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright||Poet Laureate Poetyr Intriguing People|
|1689||Bill of Rights 1689Bill of Rights 1688 – 1 of 4 great historic documents…||Law Government Parliament|
|1689||Issac Newton meets John Locke philosopher for the first time they become close friends||Science philosophy|
|1689||Issac Newton becomes a member of the House of Commons for Cambridge||Science Politics|
|1690||Locke leader of the Enlightenment Essay Concerning Human Understanding||Enlightenment Philosophy Philosophers Intellectua;s|
|1690||William III defeats the former James II at the Battle of the Boyne||Battles Royalty|
|1694||Bank of England founded as Joint Stock Company Public Subscription a private Company||Business and Industry Organisations Banking & Finance|
|1694||Queen Mary Died||Monarchy|
|1696||Sir Christopher Wren appointed Surveyor of the Royal Naval Hospital in Greenwich||Architecture|
|1698||Thomas Slavery's Miners Friend is patented. Designed to pump water from coal mines, it is the first practical machine to be powered by steam||Science|
|1688||First British explorer in Australia||The first British explorer William Dampier lands in Australia's northwest coast.|
|1642||Van Diemen's Land||Dutch explorer Abel Tasman lands in Van Diemen's Land now Tasmania.|
|1642||Dutch explorer sights South Island New Zealand.||Abel Tasman sights New Zealand|
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