Timeline of the 16th Century
|1500||First design of a helicopter||Leonardo da Vinci designed a helicopter|
|1502||Marriage agreement between Margaret, daughter of Henry VII, and James IV of Scotland.||He was 30 years old she just 13 when she reached Scotland for a wedding which a hundred years later would put a Scottish king on the English throne.|
|1502||Pocket Watch, invented by Peter Henlein||Science|
|1506||Death of Christopher Columbus||Explorer|
|1509||Death of King Henry VII and accession of Henry VIII||The young King was 18 years old. On the first day of his accession he arrested his fathers most hated ministers Empson and Dudley, they were tried and executed. In June he married Catherine of Aragon.|
|1513||Battle of Flodden Field||This battle was fought at Flodden Edge, Northumberland in which invading Scots were defeated by the English|
|1513||Discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Europeans||Balboa a Spanish adventurer first sighted the Pacific from Panama. 6 years later Magellan sailed down the south american coast until he found the difficult passage which led to the Pacific Ocean which would become known as the Magellan Straits.|
|1515||Thomas Wolsey becomes Lord Chancellor of England||Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, is made Lord Chancellor of England and a Cardinal by Pope Leo X|
|1516||Book 'Utopia' by Thomas More||The book is a socio-political satire, a narrative primarily depicting a fictional island society and its religious, social, and political customs.|
|1517||Martin Luther at Wittenberg||Martin Luther nails his "95 Theses" against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences, on the church door at Wittenberg|
|1519||Death of Leonardo da Vinci.||Science Art|
|1520||Field of Cloth of Gold: Francois I of France meets Henry VIII but fails to gain his support against Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V|
|1520||Continent of America appears on map.||A map is published by Peter Apian that shows the continent of America|
|1521||Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X||Royalty|
|1522||The first Arithmetic book published in England, by Cuthbert Turnstall||Writer Science|
|1522||The Vittoria - first ship to sail around the world.||Magellan's crew (he was murdered in the Phillipines) brought his ship home across the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope back to Spain.|
|1526||Hans Holbein artist arrives in England and stays for 13 years||Art|
|1527||Thorne writes 'A Declaration of the Indies'||First Englishman to write a book on exploration. This book urges King Henry of a north west passage to Asia.|
|1529||Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey dismissed.||Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey dismissed for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons the "Reformation Parliament" and begins to cut the ties with the Church of Rome.|
|1530||Death of Thomas Wolsey.||Political|
|1532||Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIII's divorce||Political|
|1533||King Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn||Royalty|
|1533||Art limited to portraits and allegorical scenes, other subjects being banned after 1533 in Protestant England. Now painting was almost entirely in the hands of foreigners.||Art|
|1534||Act of Supremacy. King Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of England||Law|
|1535||Thomas More beheaded in Tower of London||Politics|
|1536||Anne Boleyn is executedAnne Boleyn’s Execution Speech.||Within 24hrs of the execution Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins|
|1536||St James Palace Westminster built||Architecture|
|1536 - 1539||Dissolution of the monasteries||Dissolution of the monasteries and nunneries in order to fund the government.|
|1536 - 1543||Welsh representation||Although Wales was subjugated in 1284 a political union of Wales with England is forged giving Welsh representation in parliament.|
|1537||Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son, the future Edward VI||Royalty|
|1539||Henry VIII dissolves Great Abbey of Reading||Church and Religion|
|1539||English bible||The first authorized Bible in English.|
|1540||King Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves||Royalty|
|1540||King Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason||Royalty|
|1542||Catherine Howard is executed||Royalty|
|1543||Death of Hans Holbein||Art|
|1543||Nicolaus Copernicus' published, "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium", the great book which changed our view of the universe, the Earth and other planets orbiting the sun||Science|
|1543||King Henry VIII married Catherine Parr||Royalty|
|1547||Death of King Henry VIII||King Henry VIII died at Whitehall Palace.|
|1547||Edward is crowned King Edward VI and Duke of Somerset becomes Lord Protector||Royalty|
|1547||Artist Nicholas Hilliard born. His inspiration Holbein.||Art|
|1547 - 1553||England becomes a Protestant nation.||England becomes a Protestant nation with an English Bible and prayer book.|
|1551||Leonard Digges invents the theodolite||Science|
|1552||Christ's Hospital School built||Architecture|
|1553||King Edward VI died and Lady Jane Grey becomes Queen for nine days||Royalty|
|1553||Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England||Mary deprived Archbishop Cranmer and the leading Protestant bishops were deprived of their sees. They were all sent to the Tower.|
|1553 - 1558||Mary is crowned Queen of England||Mary daughter of Catherine of Aragon was the first woman to rule England as Queen in her own right.|
|1554||Execution of Lady Jane Grey||Royalty|
|1554||Wyatt's Rebellion||Thomas Wyatt led the 'Wyatt Uprisings' in London. A rebellion against the marriage of Queen Mary and Philip of Spain. The object of the rising was to dethrone Mary in favour of her sister Elizabeth.|
|1555 - 1558||The Protestant Martyrs||Under Queen Mary's rule, England returns to Roman Catholicism. Protestants are persecuted and about 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the stake|
|1557||Stationers Company London charted||Mercantile|
|1558||Death of Queen Mary||Royalty|
|1558||Elizabeth is crowned Queen of England||Royalty|
|1558||Repeal of Catholic legislation in England||Law|
|1559||Custom House built||Mercantile|
|1559||Act of Supremacy||This act declared the Sovereign to be supreme of all persons and causes, ecclesiastical as well as civil within this realm.|
|1559||Act of Uniformity||This act compelled the clergy to use the Prayer Book of Edward VI and it compelled the laity to go to church and hear the English service read. The Act of Supremacy and Uniformity brought about the the main thread of Elizabeth's Church Settlement.|
|1560||Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers||Political|
|1562||Witchcraft is made a capital offense in England||Law|
|1564||Christopher Marlowe born in Canterbury||Writer|
|1564||William Shakespeare born in Stratford||Writer|
|1564||Michaelangelo painter and sculptor died||Art|
|1564||Peace of Troyes between England and France||Political|
|1567||Murder of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots. There is a suspicion he was murdered by Earl of Bothwell and that he and Mary Queen of Scots were lovers. She then marries Bothwell, is imprisoned, and forced to abdicate. Her son James VI, becomes King of Scotland||Royalty|
|1568||Gerardus Mercator introduces the map projection that bears his name||Science|
|1570||Queen Elizabeth I excommunicated||Pope Pius V issued a Bull of Excommunication against Queen Elizabeth.|
|1571||Johannes Kepler born||Science|
|1577||Francis Drake sets off to sail around the world||Exploration|
|1582||Gregorian calender introduced||Ecclesiastical|
|1583||University of Edinburgh founded||Organisations|
|1584||Expedition of Sir Francis Drake to the West Indies||Exploration|
|1584||Conspiracy against Elizabeth I involving Mary Queen of Scots||Royalty|
|1584||Roanoke Colony||An English colony is established by Sir Walter Raleigh on Roanoke Island and is resettled in 1587. It vanishes without a trace by 1590.|
|1586||Sir Walter Raleigh brings tobacco to England||Exploration|
|1588||The Spanish Armada||The Armada is defeated by the English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir John Hawkins|
|1589||Englishmen, William Lee invents a knitting machine called the stocking frame.||Science|
|1593||Galileo invents a water thermometer.||Science|
|1594||John Napier discovers and develops the logarithm, a brilliant method of simplifying difficult computations.||Science|
|1596||John Gerards 'Herbal' is published. A description of European plants||Writer Science|
|1597||John Hartington, Godson of Queen Elizabeth I invents the first flushing toilet||Science|
|1598||Stow's 'Survey of London' published||Writer|
|1599||Globe Theatre opens on London's Southbank||Art|
The preceding 15th century, closed with explorers, Columbus, Vasco de Gama, John Cabot, Cabral and many others besides, opening up new trade routes and discovering new parts of the world for European exploitation and as the century turned the corner, it seemed for the people of Europe, that they stood on the cusp of new beginnings, when so much more seemed and was possible.
The 16th Century became a hothouse for brilliantly creative minds.
Leonardo da Vinci completed the Mona Lisa, Michelangelo began work on the Sistine Chapel and Hans Holbein painted his masterpieces.
Erasmus was writing satire and Machiavelli was driven to write his book 'The Prince'. Thomas More published Utopia and Martin Luther his 95 Theses, Wittenburg. His beliefs cause great angst in the church and the Edict of Worms, declares him a heretic but could not curb the progress of Protestant Reformation. There was the beginning of a change in the way people were thinking, a slight but perceptible move from the magic and alchemy of the Middle Ages towards, science based on observation and reason but it would take the whole of the century before the new thinking gathered acceptance.
A peace at last was forged between England and France, following the alliance at the 'Field of the Cloth of Gold' but it would be fairly short lived.
The shape of the future Britain was created in the 16th Century
During this 16th century, Britain cut adrift from the Catholic church, carving out a new national church, the Church of England, with the monarch as it's supreme head. The actions of King Henry VIII resulted in the 'Act of Supremacy' and Roman Catholicism was banned. The Tudor dynasty was part of the greater Reformation movement of the rest of Europe, where the discontent with the Roman Catholic church of the previous century blasted through Germany and the Netherlands.
King Henry VIII now turned his attention to the wealth of the church and he stripped the cupboards bare.
Henry dissolved the monasteries, took their money and gave away their lands. The population were unhappy for they had no quarrel with the church but plenty to say about King Henry's reckless behaviour. England was on the verge of an uprising.
In the meanwhile, the Spanish and Portugese were amassing wealth from the gold and silver deposits they were discovering in South America. The Jesuits were founded and the great Copernicus was basing his new theory 'The Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies' on observation (not necessarily his own) and the geocentric universe theory, exploded.
How much more could this 16th Century deliver?
The Mercator world map, the rule of Ivan the Terrible, the massacre of the Hugenots, the works of Titian, pirates and privateers upon the seas, a revision to the Julian calender, the founding of the Roanoke Colony in America, the Spanish Armada and ...
So much in one century that remains with us to this day, the 16th Century is a period of time when so much divides and yet there is a coalescence of talent and thinking that reinforces itself from start to finish.
Our 16th century chronology and timelines are being created and curated but already via each century page you can quickly locate our collections for each 100 years of history. These evolve as we explore topical themes, but if you are looking for something you can't see here then please feel free to contact us and request, Thanks for taking a look.